Anabolic steroids have the potential to adversely affect the human body whilst Nolvadex can help to restart it. Despite the risk of side effects, a growing number of athletes are still taking steroids. It is important to understand that these side effects may not appear in all users at first. However, the risk of experiencing the more serious side effects listed above increases with the duration and frequency of steroid use. Perhaps the most serious side effects are not that of the physical side effects, but the psychological side effects. The abuse of steroids can occasionally lead to severe and permanent personality changes. see Cooper (1996) found that anabolic steroid use is associated with significant disturbances in personality profile. The psychological effects of steroid use will be discussed in more detail below.
Clark (2003) stated that anabolic steroids continue to be used clinically today. The medical benefits of low therapeutic doses of steroids stand in sharp contrast to the potential health risks associated with the excessive doses self-administered not only by elite athletes and body builders, but by a growing number of recreational users, including adolescent boys and girls. The deleterious effects of anabolic steroids on peripheral organs and the incidence of altered behaviors in steroid abusers have been well documented in a number of excellent current reviews for clinical populations.
Due to the danger and ineffectiveness of many orally activated steroids, some athletes prefer to use oil- or water-based injectable steroids instead. However, many athletes are unaware of the dangers of the mere process of injecting a substance into the body, let alone the effects of the drug itself. In this section, the process of injecting a steroid into the body is discussed.
Injectable steroids are meant to be delivered intramuscularly, as opposed to intravenously. In other words, DO NOT INJECT A STEROID INTO A BLOOD VESSEL. The result of doing so could be fatal.
Needle width is measured in gauges. The smaller the number on the needle, the thicker the needle will be. The standard size needle used for injecting steroids is 22 gauge (width), 1.5 inch (length). The 22 gauge needle is predominantly used for gluteal injection, but a 25 gauge is also sometimes used. Remember, the higher the number, the smaller the needle. However, if an athlete uses the wrong size needle (length and width) the delivery of the drug may not be optimal. For instance, a one-inch long, 25 gauge needle will cause the drug to take longer to inject, and may not be long enough to penetrate effectively into the muscle tissue. Larger needles, like a 20 gauge, will allow for the drug to be injected faster, but are also more painful and will cause more tissue proliferation. Generally, gluteal injections require a longer needle. Anterior thigh injections, however, do not. A one-inch needle will suffice here, as well as in the rear deltoid.